Nurses use evidence-based practice in the management of their patients every day. Patient outcomes, safety, and quality care are increased through care guided by research and the latest evidence-based practice. Research always starts with a question or problem. The next step is to collect evidence and then to assess it. Evidence can then be applied into practice and results evaluated (Chamberlain College of Nursing, 2017). This week’s lesson discusses how important a “systematic search” is when performing research. Students must use effective avenues when searching to maximize the results received (CCN, 2017).
PICO (T) is a method for evaluating a problem. Many professionals use this method. Amorin-Woods and Losco (2016) mention PICO to be a good method for research and to facilitate clinical decision making (Amorin-Woods & Losco, 2016). Amorin-Woods and Losco (2016) use a D at the end of their PICO, meaning duration or time frame. “P” stands for patient, problem or population, “I” stands for intervention, “C” is the comparison, “O” is for outcome, and “T” or “D” is for duration or time frame. For the purposes of this class we are using PICO (T) for our research question.
For my PICO (T) question I have decided to evaluate falls in the elderly.
Is education by healthcare providers more effective at reducing falls in the elderly versus exercise programs to increase strength and balance?
P (Population, patient, problem) – Falls in the elderly
I – (Intervention) – Education by healthcare providers to reduce falls
C – (Comparison) – Exercise programs to increase strength and balance
O – (Outcome) – Decreased falls in the elderly, evidenced by decreased hospital admissions for falls
T – (Time frame) – 6 months
There are many reasons that patients fall, but especially in the elderly. The risk of falls and fall frequency increases with advanced age. According to Karlsson, Magnusson, Von Schewelov, and Rosengren (2013) the correction of certain risk factors will decrease the number of falls (Karlsson, Magnusson, Von Schewelov, & Rosengren, 2013). Karlsson et al. (2013) list a number of potential modifiable factors, such as vitamin D supplementation, cataract surgery when needed, reducing fall risk factors in the home, physical exercise, the careful monitoring of medications, and individualized patient education (Karlsson et al., 2013). Education by healthcare providers and the implementation of exercise programs are both areas which can help to decrease falls in the elderly population.